Creatine Fact Sheet

Creatine Test Results

Ingredient Creatine; also known as:
Cr, creatine monohydrate
Scientific Name N-amidinosarcosine;
N-(aminoiminomethyl)-N
methyl glycine

History of Use
Creatine was discovered by the French scientist Michel Eug è ne Chevreul in 1832 as a new ingredient found in meat ( kreas is Greek for flesh). It has been popular as a sports nutrition dietary supplement since 1992. Creatine is a nitrogenous amine and is a naturally occurring dietary constituent. As one of the best-studied supplements, oral creatine has been to enhance sports performance.

Chemistry and Pharmacology
Creatine occurs naturally in the human body and plays a major role in energy metabolism. As a dietary supplement, creatine is absorbed at a rate of over 90 percent. The majority, approximately 95 percent, is found in skeletal muscle. Creatine is synthesized from three amino acids; glycine, arginine and methionine. Within the muscles it makes phosphocreatine (PC) which serves as a precursor to make ATP (Adrenosine triphosphate) for energy production.

Oral creatine is most effective for repeated bouts of high intensity, short duration exercise (e.g., sprinting, weight lifting, etc.). It also increases muscle mass by increasing intracellular water, a process known as "cell volumizing." It has not shown effectiveness in enhancing aerobic exercise. Creatine has also been used by people with congestive heart failure (CHF), neuromuscular diseases and mitochondrial disorders to improve these conditions. It has also been used to slow the progression of ALS (Lou Gehrig's disease) and various muscular dystrophies (e.g., Parkinson's disease).

Meats, poultry and fish are the major natural sources of creatine.

Toxicology
Creatine should not be used in pregnant or lactating women and people with kidney problems. Creatine is safe when used in appropriate doses in healthy adults.

Summary
Creatine has been proven to be an effective dietary supplement for short duration high intensity exercise. It is also effective in increasing muscle mass in adult athletes. It occurs naturally in meats, fish and poultry. Creatine is safe when used orally and appropriately in healthy adults.